Any art in which the depiction of real objects has been subordinated or discarded in favor of patterns, lines and color.
acid-free foam board
A board made of foamed plastic (polystyrene) material sandwiched between coated paper from which the acids have been removed or have been chemically neutralized to raise the pH level above 7 (alkaline).
A vague term, referring to a material with a pH of 7 or higher. Sometimes used incorrectly as a synonym for alkaline or buffered material.
Some acidic materials are chemically neutralized with the addition of alkaline products; other materials are processed to remove the acid-producing elements. (Acid-free materials may become acidic over time due to residual chlorine from bleaching, aluminum sulfate from sizing or atmospheric pollutants.)
acid-free corrugated cardboard
Corrugated board that has been rendered acid-free; may be lignin free and/or buffered to raise the pH to 7 or above (alkaline). Used as a backing board or for making sturdy storage containers for paper art, textiles or other unframed pieces which should be stored in acid-free atmospheres.
A box-like cover constructed from clear acrylic sheet.
Artists’ colors made by polymerizing a methyl methacrylate by emulsification, thus dispersing the resin into tiny particles in water. This fluid is used for a base in compounding polymer colors.
Acrylic colors are water soluble when wet, but dry to an insoluble film. Colors are bright, dry quickly and are flexible.
An artwork executed with acrylic paint.
An instrument, powered by compressed air, used to spray paint with delicate control and precision. Paint (usually a fine water color) is held in a small cup attached to the side of the pen-like instrument. Paint is drawn through the "brush" by the Venturi effect. The result is characterized by a very smooth, even texture and unbroken tonal gradations.
A clear plastic sheet onto which a drawing is copied, either by hand-inking or by a xerographic copier process. Colored paints are applied to the reverse side. One or more cels may be placed over a painted background, which serves as a setting for the action. In animated movies and cartoons, twenty-four cels are required for each second of screen time. Cel is an abbreviation for Celluloid (trademark).
A finishing technique used to give the appearance of age.
Broadly used to describe materials that have the least harmful effects on the art being framed or stored and thus preserving such pieces for the longest period of time.
A form of human activity created primarily as an aesthetic expression, especially, but not limited to drawing, painting and sculpture.
A skillful craftsman. One skilled in an applied art.
Historically, it was a print retained by the artist for his/her own use or sale. It may bear the designation A/P.
Back to Top
Rough, heavily grained wood with the texture and coloring of weathered wood, as on a barn.
An extremely elaborate and ornate artistic style. This dynamic, theatrical style dominated art and architecture in Europe during the 17th Century.
A sculptural relief technique in which the projection of the forms is relatively shallow.
Originated in Java; a method of dyeing textiles. Wax is applied to sections of material which are to remain uncolored; the dyes do not penetrate wax. Once dyed, the wax can be removed by various methods, one of which is boiling. Repeated waxing and dyeing results in colorful patterns. The lines typically found in batiks are produced by cracking the hardened wax before applying the dye.
Cutting or shaping the edge or end of a material to form an angle that is not a right angle, such as the bevel cut on the window edge of a mat.
A tree that grows in northern countries. The wood is hard and pale brownish yellow in color, dense and somewhat heavy. Even though hard, it is easy to carve. Birch bark is waterproof because of its natural waxes.
bird’s eye maple
A North American hardwood valued for cabinet work and frame molding. The hard, strong, heavy, close grained wood is beautifully patterned. This wood of the sugar maple is characterized by a wavy grain causing bird’s eye like markings.
Having to do with plants, most often used in reference to artwork depicting plants or flowers.
In multiple mat combinations, that mat which is nearest the art.
Lightweight plastic sheet packaging material with air filled pockets.
Small self-adhesive pad, made of rubber, cork or felt, used on the bottom corners of the dust cover or back of a frame to hold the frame away from the wall at the bottom, allowing air to circulate. Also steadies the frame on the wall.
Back to Top
1) A heavy woven fabric usually of cotton or linen, used as a support for a painting. The surface is prepared for painting by applying gesso or rabbit skin glue. 2) Interlocked or woven fibers used as the ground material for needle art.
Common gray cardboard or pasteboard to which a white cotton cloth, prepared for painting, has been glued or pasted.
Heavy pliers with elongated jaws for grasping the edges of a piece of canvas when stretching it onto a stretcher frame. A square extension at the middle of the lower jaw is called the hammer; its most important function is to supply leverage against the back of the stretcher bar.
A process which lifts the image on a print off the paper support so that it can be transferred to a canvas mount.
To form into a particular shape by pouring fluid matter into a mold and allowing it to harden, such as making a picture frame ornament.
Paper made by pressing the pulp into a die or mold used for casting or shaping, becoming a work of art in and of itself.
A catalogue which chronicles all known works of an artist, along with pertinent details on each piece.
A tree that grows in the northern hemisphere; the wood is hard and light weight. It is golden brown in color with a hint of green. It can be easily distinguished from other brownish woods by its golden sheen.
American: A hardwood tree that grows in the northeastern United States; the wood is coarse in texture, moderately light and strong. It is grayish brown or brown in color. It seasons well and is easily worked with tools.
A board made entirely from recycled paper products, containing a variety of impurities. It is an inexpensive mounting and backing board for non-conservation/preservation framing.
(v) To cut picture frame molding, usually at a 45 degree angle, to the length needed for a frame.
(n) The length of molding cut for a picture frame.
A small embossed seal or impression on a print, generally indicating the printer or artist.
A color photograph based on the silver dye-bleach system. The necessary colors (azo dyes) are built into the emulsion layers. These colors are bleached out where not needed during developing. Azo dyes produce more brilliant colors and have greater stability and resistance to light than any other current process. Ilford has renamed its process Ilfochrome.
Glass made with a smooth or polished surface on both sides. It is not etched, coated or laminated.
The control of temperature and relative humidity to produce an environment with little fluctuation, ideally 50 percent relative humidity and 70 degrees F.
Generic for a method of framing. A set of clips used to hold the glazing, art and backing together for display. Generally made of metal and not to be confused with braquettes or uni-frames.
Paper treated with clay or other adhesive mixture to improve the finish for printing, color, smoothness or other surface property. This also includes lacquered and varnished papers. (29)
Artwork created by securing pieces of paper, fabric or other materials onto a substrate. Though basically two-dimensional, it may have a sculptural effect.
1) Used to refer to perceived qualities that result from the response of vision to the wavelength of reflected or transmitted light. 2) Describes images that have hues, as opposed to black, white and gray tones only and the processes used to make them.
A spectrum of colors placed in a circle including the three primary colors: red, yellow and blue, and the secondary colors: orange, green and purple. Colors opposite each other on the wheel are complementary colors.
Colors which are directly opposite each other on the color wheel, e.g., red and green, blue and orange.
Relief ornaments made from a mixture of whiting, oil, resin and animal hide glue. Pliable when heated, self-adhesive when wet and hard when set.
The arrangement of elements, shapes and colors in a work of art.
In framing, it is the careful maintenance and protection of works of art.
In conservation (preservation) framing, using materials and procedures that will have no adverse effects on a piece of artwork and will protect the artwork from external damage.
Exclusive rights to reproduce, sell and distribute a work, prepare derivative works and display the work publicly.
Short molding lengths mitered and joined to form a corner. Used as visual aids during the framing design process. Also referred to as chevrons.
Certified Picture Framer. One who has passed the Professional Picture Framers Association’s certification examination.
Back to Top
The feathery edge of a sheet of handmade paper, caused by the deckle or frame which confines the pulp to the mold. Also present on some machine-made papers, caused by the rubber deckle straps at the sides of the paper machine.
Decoration of a surface by covering it completely with cut out paper forms. The process used in making collages.
1) The selection and arrangement of the formal elements in a work of art; the expression of the artist’s conception in terms of a composition.
1) A set of two prints making one complete image. 2) An ancient writing tablet consisting of two pieces of wood or ivory hinged together, with the inner sides waxed for writing on with a stylus.
dry cleaning pad
A soft cloth bag filled with erasing powder. Used for removing dirt and smudges on mat board and paper.
Back to Top
The total number of copies printed from the same plates or blocks and published about the same time.
To beautify by ornamentation.
An embellishment raised in relief from the surface.
1) A glossy substance, usually opaque, applied by fusion to the surface or metal, pottery, etc., as an ornament or for protection. 2) Any of various enamel-like varnishes or paints.
Lines cut into a plate by hand with a steel burin or graver; no acid is used. The metal which is displaced in cutting is smoothed with a scraper which results in crisp, meticulous lines. Then the entire plate is thoroughly inked, with care taken to force the ink down into all of the lines, completely filling them. The surface is wiped clean, leaving the incised lines filled. A press is used to transfer the image onto paper.
A printing process. A metal plate is covered with an acid-resisting ground. The design is scratched through this ground, exposing the metal beneath. The plate is then immersed in an acid bath, causing the scratched or exposed areas to be eaten away. The plate is wiped clean, inked and the higher surfaces cleaned again, allowing the ink to remain in the incised areas. A press is then used to transfer the image onto paper. (n) Art work so executed.
Back to Top
To lose or cause to lose brightness or brilliance or definition of line, form and color.
A small molding with profile that may be used as an edging on a mat or frame lip. Profiles may differ somewhat. May also be called a slip.
The process of assembling glass, mats, artwork and filler board into a picture frame, including the addition of a dust cover, hangers and bumper pads.
A means of securing artwork to a rigid support so all edges are visible.
A window mat raised or elevated off the underneath surface by spacers.
A molding designed to give the artwork the appearance of floating within the frame. Floater frames have a rabbet in reverse; the artwork is fitted in from the front.
A flat container for holding/storing artwork
That decorative or functional element which surrounds an item, providing protection and display functions. Typically made of wood or metal, a frame generally provides the architectural support element for a work of art.
1) The characteristic appearance of a frame, identified with a historical period or as being that of a particular frame maker. 2) The process whereby the appearance of a frame is planned, designed and executed. 3) The process whereby framing components are selected for a particular artwork.
Back to Top
The art of adhering thin metal, silver or gold leaf to a surface.
A style of matting, the mat is painted, etched or leafed onto the surface of a piece of glass.
A semi-transparent paper. A smooth, non-abrasive surface makes it ideal for interleaving or overlaying delicate artwork, such as a fragile etching or pastel painting, and it will not adhere to the varnish on oil paintings.
1) A protective interface between the environment and the work of art including glass and acrylic sheets. 2) In oil painting, a thin layer of a transparent coating applied to the dried painting. 3) In ceramics, a thin coating applied to a piece before it is put in the kiln. It functions as a means to waterproof the object, change its color or generally alter its appearance. 4) On frame molding, a thin coat of color applied over a base finish to change its appearance.
gold leafA very thin sheet of beaten gold used in gilding. Also referred to as "loose leaf." Gold leaf is available in 12-23 karat gold. Each leaf is cut to a standard 3 3/8 inches square and has a thickness of approximately 1/300,000 of an inch. Gold leaf is packaged in books of 25 leaves, each leaf separated by tissue paper. A pack or box of gold leaf contains 20 books, for a total of 500 leaves.
1) An opaque watercolor paint. 2) A painting done with such a medium,
Back to Top
A print that has been manually lifted from the printing plate.
A hardwood tree that grows throughout the eastern half of the United States; the wood is exceptionally tough, heavy, hard and strong.
A small piece of paper or tape generally used to attach paper art to a mounting board.
hors de commerce
Similar to an artist’s proof. Impressions pulled outside of the regular edition for the use by the publishers.
Back to Top
A sheet of cardboard with a sheet of drawing paper mounted on one side. Illustration boards are mostly used by commercial artists
1) The printed or colored portion of a print. 2) A physical likeness or representation of a person, animal or thing; photographed, painted, sculpted or otherwise made visible.
A mark or depression made by pressure.
A term that includes all metal plate engraving and etching processes in which the printing areas are recessed, e.g., engraving, etching, drypoint and aquatint.
Back to Top
In framing, the operation of gluing and nailing the corners of a frame.
Back to Top
Strong wrapping paper, usually brown, made from wood chips boiled in an alkaline solution containing sodium sulfate. Comes on a roll in different weights and widths.
Back to Top
(n) A protective coating consisting of a resin or cellulose ester or both, which is dissolved in a volatile solvent sometimes with a pigment added. (v) To cover with a coating to produce a smooth, hard finish.
A frame or object that has had gold, silver or metal leaf applied to it.
To raise or elevate the window mat off the artwork by means of spacers made of mat board or foam board strips attached to the mounting board or the underside of the mat and not visible.
The issue of something collectible, such as prints, limited to a certain quantity of numbered copies. The first number indicates the number of the piece; the second number indicates the total quantity of the edition, e.g., 135/250.
1) A frame molding used within the outer molding. May be covered with fabric, often velvet or linen. Many liners are made from fully finished frame stock, including gold or silver. Sometimes called an insert. If over 2 1/2 inches wide, called a panel. 2) Inner mats and fillets are also called liners.
A generic term used to designate a print made by a planographic process, such as an original lithograph done on a lithographic stone or a commercial print made by a photo-mechanical process
The traditional planographic printing method which involves drawing or painting with greasy crayons or inks on a limestone block. The surface is then moistened with water. An oily ink is applied to the stone and adheres only to the drawing. The ink is repelled by the water which has soaked into the areas around the drawing. The print is pulled by pressing paper against the inked drawing, using a press. Variations of the technique are widely used in commercial reproductions.
Back to Top
A tree which grows in West Africa, South and Central America; the wood is quite soft and light weight; has a coppery-red color. Valued for its color, workability and because it does not shrink or warp.
A tree which grows in northeastern North America; the wood is hard, heavy and strong; the color varies from pale grayish to yellowish white. It is not durable for outdoor use, but is the best of all woods for flooring.
In sculpture, a small scale model.
(window mat) A border, usually made from mat board, placed around a print, photograph, etc., to serve as a spacer or separation between the picture and the frame.
A multi-ply board usually comprised of a core, adhesive, facing and backing paper. Commonly four-ply, but available in other thicknesses. May be rag board or made of wood fiber. The surface paper comes in a wide variety of colors. In framing, used to make the window mat and as a mounting board for artwork.
A tool for cutting the window opening in a mat. May be a small hand-held tool or include various levels of sophistication with regard to guide bar, measuring devices, fittings for special effects, oval cutting capability and possibly hydraulic clamps.
1) The specific tool and material used by an artist, e.g., brush and oil paint, chisel and stone. 2) The mode of expression employed by an artist, e.g., painting, sculpture, the graphic arts. 3) A liquid that may be added to a paint to increase its manipulability without decreasing its adhesive, binding or film-forming properties.
Collection of objects that have a sentimental value.
metal sectional frame
A frame of anodized extruded aluminum sections.
An intaglio process in which the plate is pitted all over with a tool called a "rocker." By scraping or burnishing the raised burrs, gradations of light and shade may be produced in the printed image. Mezzotints are characterized by a rich, velvet overall appearance with numerous tonal ranges.
Describes artwork which is in the same condition as it was when originally finished, printed, etc. Taken from coinage, in the same condition as it was when it was minted
A heavy duty hanging device attached to the back of a frame with screws, characterized by having a holding ring at the top through which a thin, narrow metal strip has been passed and folded in half.
To cut frame molding on an angle for joining to other mitered pieces.
(mwa-ray) A lustrous watermark of wavy design placed on fabric by passing it through heated ridged rollers under pressure. Makes an attractive fabric pattern covering for mats.
A painting or drawing of different shades of one color.
A one-of-a-kind print made by painting on a sheet or slab and transferring the still wet painting to a sheet of paper by a hand method; if the painting is done on a metal sheet, it may be run through a press.
A distinctive and recurring form, shape or figure.
Wood or metal which has been refined and shaped and which includes a rabbet for use in the framing industry as frame stock.
A surface, substrate or secondary support to which any art or object is attached.
Back to Top
Back to Top
A process in which the printed image is transferred, or offset, from one roller or plate to another and then transferred to the printing paper. Offset lithographs should be termed reproductions rather than originals prints. This process eliminates the need to draw the image in reverse on the stone or plate.
Artists’ colors made by dispersing pigments in linseed oil or another vegetable drying oil and having the consistency of a smooth paste.
An edition having an unlimited number of prints in it.
A unique piece of artwork that cannot be exactly duplicated, e.g., an oil painting on canvas. While the image may be duplicated as a print, the reproduction is not oil paint on canvas.
Heavily ornamented, overly adorned, showy.
A frame with an elliptical shape.
A mat with an elliptical opening; may have an oval or rectangular perimeter.
In animation art, a portion of a scene, generally a foreground element, painted on or applied to a cel and laid over the action to create the illusion of depth.
Describes the size of a frame or materials that are larger than standard 32- by 40-inch mat board.
Back to Top
A thin blade of varying flexibility set in a handle; used for mixing paints or applying them to a surface.
A substance made from cotton, wood or other fibrous material, usually in thin sheets, used for writing, printing or drawing.
The direction in which most of the fibers in a piece of paper are oriented and the axis along which the paper tears and flexes most easily. Grain is usually found only in machine made papers, although it is also present in some handmade oriental papers. (24)
1) A translucent or opaque material made from split skins of small animals, usually lambs or kids (goat) that have been limed, void of hair, scraped and dried under tension to produce a fine, thin, strong surface for writing, bookbinding or other uses. 2) Paper with a texture resembling true parchment.
1) A crayon made from pigment mixed with just enough biding agent to hold it together. 2) A drawing (painting) made with pastel crayons.
1) A film or encrustation, usually green, appearing gradually on a surface of copper and bronze, due to weathering and as a result of oxidation. 2) An opaque toning used to stimulate aging or to dull the brightness of a gilded surface. 3) A deep, soft polished gleam acquired by wood and metal after years of wear and polishing.
A tree that grows in the warmer parts of the United States and Mexico. It is large with hard, but brittle, wood.
A frame specifically designed for standard sized photographs, often with an easel backing.
A printing technique in which a negative is exposed to a photo-sensitized lithographic plate, the image is then developed on the plate. Non-image areas are desensitized and the image area becomes an ink attracting surface. The plate is inked and printed in the normal manner.
A structure, usually of wood or metal in which a painting, print or other object is enclosed to improve or enhance its appearance, to isolate it from a wall or to link it to a decor, as well as to support and protect it.
A device attached to the wall on which the frame is hung or attached to the molding of a frame by which the picture is hung.
A soft braided or solid wire, available in several thicknesses to support various weights, which may be coated with flexible plastic, attached to the back of framed pictures.
A tree that grows in a variety of locations around the world. The wood varies from very soft to hard, is light weight and straight grained. It is white or yellowish in color.
A small metal plate mounted on a frame, usually showing the artist’s name and name of the artwork.
A painting, sculpture, drawing, photograph or other representation of a particular individual.
1) An inexpensive printed reproduction of a piece of artwork. 2) A placard or print intended for posting in a public place as an advertisement.
The Professional Picture Framers Association. A professional trade association that serves the art and framing industry.
Red, yellow and blue. No combination of other colors will yield a primary color; combinations of the primary colors yield all other colors.
A generic term used to describe an impression made on paper from a block, plate or film negative, for example.
1) The outline of the exposed surface of a molding cross-section. 2) An outline of the contour of a face, viewed from the side.
A record of previous ownership and previous locations for a work of art.
Back to Top
Back to Top
Paper with all the qualities and benefits of rag board, but much thinner. Used to make photo corners and for other light weight applications in framing.
ready made frame
A frame ready for purchase as is, as opposed to a custom-made frame. Ready mades are usually produced in standard sizes, e.g., 8x10, 11x14, 16x20.
To remove an artwork from a frame and reinstall in the same or different frame.
In multicolor printing, small dots, circles, crosses, etc., placed in the margin of the key (main) block, plate, etc., and which are transferred exactly to each printing surface made from the key. These marks enable the printer to align all the printing surfaces, so that each color impression will be in register with all the other impressions.
A designation for standard single-strength window glass (2.5 mm).
1) A small sketch engraved in the margin of a printing plate, usually removed before the final edition is printed. 2) A printing plate with such a mark.
Produced after the original edition was issued and from the original plates or blocks.
Cosmetic repair of an object to recreate its original appearance.
Produced after the original edition was issued and from the original plates or blocks. Often made years after the artist’s death.
A common misnomer for Japanese paper. A smooth, white material favored by Chinese painters; cut off, in a spiral manner, from the pith of the Fatsia papyrifera tree. Not a paper, similar to papyrus and tapa in that regard.
A tree that grows in India, South and Central America. The wood is hard and very heavy. A special feature is the silvery sparkle it gives off when placed under light.
Back to Top
A common frame molding shape, a cross section showing a concave or hollowed profile.
A screw with a head shaped into a loop to which the hanging wire on the back of a picture frame is attached.
An arena where limited edition prints are resold after the edition has been sold out at the original sources.
A type of hanger with one section attached to the back of the frame and the other to the wall. When positioned together, the frame is held securely and requires a special tool to separate the hanger parts.
1) A dark brown color. 2) A dark brown pigment, used in paints and inks.
Artwork created to resemble an animation cel, but using screen printing techniques.
A method of printing using a hand-cut or photographically prepared stencil attached to silk or a polyester fabric through which color is forced. Also, referred to as a silk-screen or screen print.
A frame made from a deep molding in which three-dimensional objects may be displayed.
(n) A clear plastic film which shrinks when heated. It comes in various qualities and thicknesses. (v) The act of wrapping an object in this film.
A stencil process of printing in which a cloth (originally silk) is stretched over a heavy frame and the design painted by tusche or affixed by stencil. It is printed by having a squeegee force color through the pores of the fabric in areas not blocked out. The term silk-screen now implies a commercial use, the same process used in fine art is termed serigraph.
Silver that has been beaten into thin sheets. Silver leaf is more delicate than imitation gold, but sturdier than genuine gold; can be cut with scissors and picked up with fingers. A very versatile leaf; the color can be modified with a tinted shellac, sometimes known as gamboge.
There are various types of spring clips, used to hold a stretcher frame in a wooden frame or artwork in a metal frame. The canvas type hook on the stretcher bar and to the inside of the wooden frame. The type for metal frames fits between the back inside edge of the frame and the backing board.
A limited edition print of a game stamp, e.g., duck stamp print.
standard size frame
A frame built to one of a variety of sizes deemed standard in the framing industry, e.g., 5x7, 8,10, 16x20.
A painting or drawing of a group of inanimate objects contrived by the artist according to some theme, either symbolic or merely aesthetic.
To pull a fabric taut over a rigid support and secure; e.g., a canvas over a stretched frame or a needle art over foam board.
A strip of wood with tongue-and-groove ends. Bars are joined to form an expandable frame over which canvas is stretched.
A term from substratum meaning a layer lying under another. Generally used to denote a foundation material upon which an item is mounted or otherwise functions as a carrier.
Back to Top
A tree that grows in Southern India and Southeast Asia. The wood is extremely hard (ordinary nails cannot be driven into it), very heavy (logs sink in water) and uniquely resistant to attack by insects, fungi and chemicals (it is not harmed by acids or alkalis). The color varies from yellow brown to rich brown. It has a course texture, usually is straight grained and has an oily feel; excellent dimensional stability and durability.
1) A set of three paintings or bas reliefs, related in subject matter and connected side by side. The two outside half-panels (called wings) may be closed over the central panel. 2) A set of three prints that make one complete image.
Back to Top
In framing, the combined inches of one length and one width of a frame; e.g., an 8x10 frame is 18 united inches.
UV filtering acrylic sheet
A glazing material consisting of an acrylic sheet which has been formulated to remove the damaging ultraviolet rays from light.
Back to Top
1) The degree of lightness or darkness of a hue. 2) The general degree of lightness or darkness of a surface.
1) Pertaining or belonging to the period during which Queen Victoria of Great Britain reigned, c. 1840-c. 1900. 2) Characterized by the presence of heavily carved ornaments, elaborate molding, etc.; use of strong, generally dark colors; emphasis on geometric form rather than on textural effects and frequently by an effect of harshness.
1) An ornamental design of vine leaves, tendrils and grapes, used as a boarder on a page. 2) A small, pleasing picture or view. 3) Small illustration or design on the title page of a book or at the beginning or end of a chapter. 4) An engraving, drawing, photograph or the like that is shaded gradually at the edges so as to not leave a definite line at the borders.
1) The technique of painting with pigments dispersed in a gum Arabic solution. 2) A work of art so produced. 3) The paint used in this technique.
1) A design, pattern or mark on paper, usually produced by a raised area on which the paper is made. Watermarks on handmade papers are made by very low relief molds or designs of fine wire set on the screen on which the moist pulp collects.
A highly exacting technique involving engraving on a piece of polished endwood. Endwood is a cross-cut section of wood which has little or no perceptible grain. This allows for cutting of delicate lines in any direction.
produced from animated
may be described as "cels" referring to celluloid on which such films
were produced. Some prints on paper also may be produced from animated
Artist's proof--(This may be penciled in at the bottom of a print as A/P) Prints outside the standard edition which are intended for the artist's own private collection and use as part of the original artist-publisher agreement.
Canceling--To prevent further use of a printing plate after an edition has been printed, the artist sometimes "cancels" the plate by X-ing it out or in some other way defacing it. Sometimes cancellation proofs are made. However, many artists who make woodblock or other relief prints save individual blocks and combine them in different designs.
Cartoon art--Original drawings/paintings of cartoonists that were originally produced for newspaper comics or editorial cartoon pages.
Cast paper--Artwork produced by placing wet paper or paper mache materials in a mold and allowing it to dry. The result generally looks like a plaster cast of an image, but is very lightweight.
Chop mark--An uninked, embossed stamp on a print which identifies the printer, artists, workshop or sometimes a collector. Also called a "blind-stamp."
Crafts--Any of a number of items produced using original art techniques are today considered fine art crafts--blown glass, pottery, ceramics, clay pieces, textiles/weavings, wood carvings and other items that are created by artists are original and unique works of art. Some are very expensive and are very collectible.
Documentation--Information available on the edition of a print telling the artist's name, the printer's name, the location of the workshop, the number of prints in the edition, date, etc. Although this is somewhat important in print collecting, the condition of the print usually is more significant.
Edition--The total number of prints made of a specific image and issued together from a publisher.
Giclée--An image that is created or scanned into a computer, then printed on a high-speed ink-jet printer. (The term literally means "spurt " or "spray.") Special inks produce incredibly true colors without the dot pattern associated with offset lithography. With advances in technology, the giclée has continued to evolve, and has become an accepted printing method. The quality of the inks used to print, and the substrate on which the image is printed, affect the quality and longevity of the print. A giclée can be either original art (when the image is created originally in the computer) or a reproduction (when an image is scanned into a computer, then printed.)
Graphic--A term for any "multiple original" work of art on paper. The graphics media includes intaglios, serigraphs, and lithographs. An offset reproduction is not a graphic.
Intaglio--From an Italian word meaning "cut in," intaglio prints are made from images cut below the surface of the printing plate. Ink is forced into these cut-out images and then forced onto the paper in a press exerting great pressure. Intaglio prints include etchings, aquatints, drypoints, engravings, soft-ground etchings and mezzotints. In some processes, the lines are cut out by hand with tools; in others, they are bitten out by acid.
Limited edition--This term refers to the number of objects that are available. In art, a limited edition refers to the fact that the article is one of a number of images in a published edition for which a predetermined number of impressions were from a plate. Once the predertimed number of impressions are made, no more impressions are to be taken, assuring that the edition is "limited." The number of impressions in a limited edition should be information that is available to the consumer. Both original graphics and reproductions are offered as "limited editions" from artists and art publishers.
Limited edition reproduction--(Sometimes referred to as "offset lithograph.") Art that has been photomechanically reproduced from another medium and printed by one of several methods, often by offset presses. The edition size has been predetermined by the publisher, generally based on the artist's popularity and sales potential.
Original graphics also are "limited editions," but prints produced by original means--and do not exist already in another medium--are considered multiple original prints, not reproductions.
Lithography--Artwork printed from a stone or metal plate or other flat surface. The artist uses a greasy substance to draw on the surface of the plate; only these greasy areas will accept ink. Once the plate is inked, high-quality paper is laid over it and the package is pulled through a press. To create a lithograph with a number of different colors, a number of different plates must be prepared and the paper must go through the press each time a new color is added. Lithographs are usually printed in editions of several hundred. Each print is considered a "multiple original" because the artist pulled each one from the press, or closely supervised the press operator. Each print is signed and numbered in the margin.
Mixed media--Artists often combine two or more printmaking methods to produce unique mixed-media works. Sometimes collage techniques are added to prints to produce a mixed-media piece.
Monotype--The only type of print that comes in an edition of one. The artist draws or paints on a flat surface, then lays fine paper over the surface and pulls the package through a press. Because no fixed design has been created in the plate, the design can never be exactly duplicated. However, artists can partially re-ink the plate and run it through a press in successive printings, creating a series of prints similar to the original. These are known as "ghost prints."
Monotypes are signed and numbered in the margin 1/1 indicating one print from an edition of one.
Offset lithograph--A photomechanically reproduced image. See "limited edition reproduction."
Open edition reproductions--Photomechanically reproduced images that are published with no restrictions as to the number of copies that will be made. Open editions usually are decorative pieces of art done in current colors, subjects and sizes, printed on inexpensive paper.
Photography--Photographic prints can be made from photographic negatives, positive transparancies or digital images, and printed on a wide variety of substrates, including photo paper, fine art paper and canvas. They can be black and white or color. Many artists, especially those whose works appeared early in the 20th century, are highly collectible. A number of contemporary artists also specialize in photography.
Poster--This art medium comes from the ancient practice of "posting" messages in public places. Used for advertising or other communication needs, posters were designed to communicate quickly and graphically. Posters are still used for that purpose today--movies, concerts, plays and other public events all are promoted with posters.
However, posters also are produced strictly as decorative art, usually inexpensively on inexpensive paper. Posters almost always photomechanical reproductions; there is always graphic type on a poster, which is the primary difference between these and open edition reproductions.
Vintage posters--those printed 50 to 100 years ago--are highly collectable and have investment value. These often are very large and very graphic, with subject matter ranging from entertainment events to advertisements for products such as tobacco, wine and household items. Many early poster artists have become very famous.
Prints, printmaking--"Print" is a generic term for a single graphic made by a variety of printing techniques. Once the term was applied only to original graphics, but in recent years, produced by offset presses and other printing methods also have been referred to as prints. The techniques used to make prints often are referred to as the "printmaking processes."
Restrikes--Modern-day printings of antique prints. Restrikes can be made from the old plates used to make authentic prints, or they can be made from new plates created just for the restrikes. These prints should be labeled as a restrike, to differentiate them from original antique prints.
Sculpture--Images created in three-dimensional form in a wide variety of materials--clay, bronze and marble are most common. Some sculpture pieces are reproduced from molds and are considered to be "published" works. Others are unique pieces created entirely by the sculptor.
Serigraph--(Also known as a silkscreen.) Artwork created from a stenciled design worked into a nylon or wire mesh. The design is created by blocking out areas that are not to be printed with a greasy substance applied to the screen, or with paper or other material. Once the design is in place, the mesh is positioned over high-quality paper and ink is pushed through it with a squeegee; areas that are not blocked are printed.A different set of screens--and an additional pass through the press--is required for each color the artist wishes to print.
When the artist, either alone or working with a master printer, creates the screens and prints the edition, generally several hundred of an image, each print is considered a "multiple original." Some reproductions also are now produced using serigraphic techniques, and are called serigraphs.
Signed and numbered--At the bottom of each print in an edition, the artist pencils in his signature and numbers the print. The numbering appears as one number over another, for example, 15/30. This indicates that this was the 15th print to be signed and that there were 30 prints in all.
States (first state, second state, etc.)--While an artist is pulling proofs of a print, he may make changes or corrections which alter the plate. Each time a plate is changed, it is said to be in a "state."
Unique--In art, this term is applied to original artwork. All original, one-of-a-kind pieces are unique works.
our Law Enforcement and Military Website at www.BadgeFrame.com
Call us...(800) New-Frame / National Toll Free
© 2005 Baxter's Frame Works / Badge Frame / All Rights Reserved
3811 Schaefer Ave., Suite A Chino, CA 91710 Local (909) 591-3033
HEY!!! Don't forget to sign our GUESTBOOK before you bail.